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劍橋雅思9閱讀:Test1雅思閱讀PASSAGE3真題+答案+解析

劍橋雅思9閱讀:Test1雅思閱讀PASSAGE3真題+答案+解析

發布時間:2021-04-26 關鍵詞:劍橋雅思9閱讀
摘要: 劍橋雅思9閱讀:Test1雅思閱讀PASSAGE3真題+答案+解析

  Passage3

  The History of the Tortoise

  烏龜的進化史

  If you go back far enough, everything lived in the sea. At various points in evolutionary history, enterprisingindividuals within many different animal groups moved out onto the land, sometimes even to the most parched deserts, taking their own private seawater with them in blood and cellular fluids. In addition to the reptiles, birds, mammals and insects which we succeeded out or water include scorpions, snails, crustaceans such as woodlice and land crabs, millipedes and centipedes, spiders and various worms. And we mustn't forget the plants, without whose prior invasion of the land none of the other migrations could have happened.

  如果追溯到遠古時代,那時一切生物都生活在水里。在進化史的不同時期,各個動物種群中都有一些膽大的開始向陸地遷徙,有的甚至跑到了干旱的沙漠里,這些生物的血液與細胞液里還儲存著曾經所生活海域里的海水。除了我們周圍隨處可見的爬行動物、鳥類、哺乳動物和昆蟲以外,其他成功登陸的生物還包括蝎子、蝸牛和潮蟲、陸蟹、千足蟲、蜈蚣等甲殼類動物,還有蜘蛛及各種蟲子。當然還有植物,如杲沒有它們率先登陸,其他任何生物都不可能在陸地上生存。

  Moving from water to land involved a major redesign of every aspect of life, including breathing and reproduction.Nevertheless, a good number of thoroughgoing land animals later turned 1, abandoned their hard-earnedterrestrial re-tooling, and returned to the water again.Seals have only gone part way back. They show us what the intermediates might have been like, on the way to extreme cases such as whales and dugongs. Whales (including the small whales we call dolphins) and dugongs, with their close cousins the manatees, ceased to be land creatures altogether and reverted to the full marine habits of their remote ancestors. They don't even come ashore to breed. They do, however, still breathe air, having never developed anything equivalent to the gills of their earlier marine incarnation. Turtles went back to the sea a very long time ago and, like all vertebrate returnees to the water, they breathe air. However, they are, in one respect, less fully given back to the water than whales or dugongs, for turtles still lay their eggs on beaches.

  從水里轉移到陸地上使這些生物在方方面面都發生了巨大變化,包括呼吸和繁殖方式。然而,一大批動物徹底在陸地上安家后,卻忽然回心轉意,放棄了來之不易的陸上新生活,又重新回到了水中。海豹只恢復了部分水中生活的特征,向我們展示了演變過程中半成品的模樣,而成品則是如鯨魚和儒艮這樣純粹的海洋生物。鯨魚(包括我們稱作海豚的小鯨魚)和儒艮,與它們的同類動物海牛一樣不再是陸地動物,而是完全恢復了與老祖先一樣的海洋生活習慣,它們甚至都不上岸繁殖。它們雖然仍呼吸空氣,卻沒有進化出類似于鰓這樣的早期海洋生物的器官。海龜在很早以前就回到了水中,和其他返回水中的脊椎動物一 樣,它們也需要呼吸空氣,但是卻沒有像鯨魚和儒艮那樣完全返回水中,這體現在一個方面——海龜仍然在海灘上產卵。

  There is evidence that all modem turtles are descended from a terrestrial ancestor which lived before most of the dinosaurs. There are two key fossils called Proganochelys quenstedti and Paiaeockersis talampayensis dating from early dinosaur times, which appear to be close to the ancestry of all modern turtles and tortoises. You might wonder how we can tell whether fossil animals lived on land or in water, especially if only fragments are found.Sometimes it's obvious. Ichthyosaurs were reptilian contemporaries of the dinosaurs, with fins andstreamlined bodies. The fossils look like dolphins and they surely lived like dolphins, in the water. With turtles it is a little obvious. One way to tell is by measuring the bones of their forelimbs.

  有證據表明,所有現代海龜的祖先都曾經生活在陸地上,比大多數恐龍在陸地上出現的時間還要早。有兩種可以追溯到恐龍時代早期的重要化石,分別是Proganochelysquenstedti (原顎龜化石)和Potoeocfeersistatompayewsis(古老的陸地龜化石),它們與所有現代海龜和烏龜的祖先最為接近。你可能會問,我們是如何通過動物化石來判斷它們是生活在水中還是陸地上的,尤其當我們只找到一些化石碎片的時候。有時候這個問題的答案很明顯。魚龍是與恐龍同時代的爬行動物,它有魚鰭和流線型的身體。魚龍化石看起來像海豚,它們確實和海豚一樣曾經在水中生活。海龜在這一點上則沒有這么明顯。判斷動物水生還是陸生的方法之一就是對它們前肢的骨骼進行檢測。

  Walter Joyce and Jacques Gauthier, at Yale University, obtained three measurements in these particular bones of 71 species of living turtles and tortoises. They used a kind of triangular graph paper to plot the three measurements against one another. All the land tortoise species formed a tight cluster of points in the upper part of the triangle; all the water turtles cluster in the lower part of the triangular graph. There was no overlap, except when they added some species that spend time both in water and on land.Sure enough, these amphibious species show up on the triangular graph approximately half way between the 'wetcluster’ of sea turtle and the 'dry cluster* of land tortoises. The next step was to determine where the fossils fell. The bones of P. quenstedti and P.talampayensis leave us in no doubt their points on the graph are right in the thick of the dry cluster. Both these fossils were dry-land tortoises. They come from the era before our turtles returned to the water.

  耶魯大學的Watter Joyce 和 JacquesGauthier 從三個方面對71種活的海龜和烏龜的特有骨骼進行了檢測。他們用一種三角坐標紙分別標記了這三個方面的檢測結果。所有陸棲烏龜的數據在三角坐標的上半部分形成了一簇密集的點,而所有水棲海龜的數據集中于下半部分。兩部分數據沒有重疊,除非在其中增加一些水陸兩棲烏龜的檢測結果。當然,這些數據出現在接近三角坐標中間的位置,位于水棲海龜與陸棲烏龜的坐標點之間。下一步就是確定具體的位置。毫無疑問,P.quenstedti與 P.totompayewsis 的坐標點正好位于陸棲烏龜的坐標點最密集的地方。這兩種化石都是陸棲烏龜化石,而且都生存在海龜返回水里之前的時代。

  You might think, therefore, that modem land tortoises have probably stayed on land ever since those early terrestrialtimes, as most mammals did after a few of them went back to the sea. But apparently not. If you draw out the family tree of all modem turtles and tortoises, nearly all the branches are aquatic. Today's land tortoises constitute a single branch, deeply nested among branches consisting of aquatic turtles. This suggests that modem land tortoises have not stayed on land continuously since the time of P. quenstedti and P. talampayensis. Rather, their ancestors were among those who went back to the water, and they then re-emerged back onto the land in (relatively) more recent times.

  也許你會認為,現代的陸棲烏龜可能自從早期有陸地生物以來就一直生活在陸地上,就像除了少數哺乳動物返回水中以外,大多數哺乳動物還在陸地上生活一樣。但事實顯然不是這樣的。如果你畫出所有現代海龜與烏龜的家譜圖,會發現幾乎所有的龜類分支都屬于水棲動物。而現代的陸棲烏龜單獨形成一個分支,穿插在水棲海龜的分支中。這說明自P.quenstedti與P. talampayensis的時代以來,現代的陸棲烏龜并沒有一直在陸地上生活。更確切地說,它們的祖先曾經返回水中,只是在(相對)較近的年代又回到了陸地上。

  Tortoises therefore represent a remarkable double return.In common with all mammals, reptiles and birds, their remote ancestors were marine fish and before that various more or less worm-like creatures stretching back, still in the sea, to the primeval bacteria. Later ancestors lived on land and stayed there for a very large number of generations. Later ancestors still evolved back into the water and became sea turtles. And finally they returned yet again to the land as tortoises, some of which now live in the driest of deserts.

  因此很明顯,烏龜曾往返于水中和陸地上生存。與所有的哺乳動物、爬行動物和鳥類一樣,烏龜的老祖先是海洋中的魚類。再向前追溯,它們也是海洋中類似蠕蟲生物的原始細菌。后來,烏龜的祖先來到陸地 上并持續生活了相當長的年代,但后來又回到了水中,成為了水棲海龜。直到最后,它們再一次回到陸地上,成為陸龜,其中有一些甚至生活在干旱的沙漠中。

  劍橋雅思9閱讀

劍橋雅思9閱讀

劍橋雅思9閱讀

  Question 27

  答案: plants

  關鍵詞: before any animals could migrate

  定位原文:第1段最后一句話“And we musn’t…”

  解題思路: 這句話指出,如果沒有植物率先登陸,其他任何生物向陸地的遷徙都不可能完成。這吻合題目中的before any animals could migrate。故答案應該是plants。

  Question 28:

  答案: breathing and reproduction (in either order)

  關鍵詞: TWO processes, make big changes, moved onto land

  定位原文:第2段第1句話“Moving from…”

  解題思路: 題目問的是:動物要想遷徙到陸地上,必須在哪兩個方面作出巨大的改變?此題定位可以根據順序原則鎖定在第二段,而第二段句話就提到Moving from water to land involved a major redesign of every aspect of life, including breathing and reproduction.這句話中的redesign對應題目中的changes。 故答案應該是breathing和reproduction。(并列答案,順序無關緊要)

  Question 29:

  答案: gills

  關鍵詞: physical feature, whales, lack

  定位原文:第2段第5句“Whales (including the small whales we call dolphins) and…”

  解題思路:先根據題目關鍵字定位到whale, 然后通讀whale所在的句子,在這段敘述中,作者最后指出雖然鯨魚仍呼吸空氣,卻沒有進化出類似于鰓這樣的早期海洋生物的器官。所以考生可以得出結論,鯨魚缺乏的其實就是gills。故答案應該是gills。

  Question 30:

  答案: dolphins

  關鍵詞: ichthyosaurs, Resemble

  定位原文:第3段倒數第4、3句“Ichthyosaurs were reptilian…”

  解題思路: 定位句中的contemporaries是理解重點,指的是“同時代的人,同時代的事物”,這里說明魚龍年代久遠,和恐龍是同時代的動物,但是并不說明魚龍和恐龍相像(其實也不大可能嘛)。而后半句的look like,就完全呼應題目中 的resemble, 這才是真正答案所在。

  故答案應該是dolphins。

  Question 31:

  答案: NOT GIVEN

  關鍵詞: Turtles,the first group

  定位原文:第2段倒數第2句“Turtles went back to the sea…” 海龜在很早以前就回到了水中,和其他返回水中的脊椎動物一樣,它們也需要呼吸空氣。

  解題思路:文中在第二段的后半部分次提到了烏龜,這就是本題的定位點。尋找turtle一詞后,文中這句話說很久以前,烏龜就重新返回海洋,但是并沒有說明是不是批回海洋這個概念。實際上,整篇文章中都沒有討論到關于the first的問題,所以此題屬于完全未提及型NOT GIVEN題。

  Question 32:

  答案: FALSE

  關鍵詞: fossilised remains, incomplete, always difficult

  定位原文: 第3段第3句“You might…” 你可能會問,我們是如何通過動物化石來判斷它們是生活在水中還是陸地上的,尤其當我們只找到一些化石碎片的時候。

  解題思路: 在第三段中尋找fossilised一詞,很快找到對應詞fossil。接著讀到fragments,可以對應題目中的incomplete, on land or in water對應題目中的where an animal lived。但題目中的敘述過于,It is always difficult與文中Sometimes it’s obvious明顯相抵觸。

  Question 33:

  答案: TRUE

  關鍵詞: ichthyosaurs, can be determined by, appearance

  定位原文:第3段倒數第4、3句“Ichthyosaurs were reptilian…” 魚龍是與恐龍同時代的爬行動物,它有魚鰭和流線型的身體。魚龍化石看起來像海豚,它們確實和海豚一樣曾經在水中生活。

  解題思路:通過ichthyosaurs一詞確定。文中提到魚龍的化石看上去像海豚,因此魚龍肯定生活在海里。這等于舉個例子向我們說明只要從魚龍化石的外表就能夠判定它的棲息地,與題目的意思完全吻合。

  Question 34:

  答案: three measurements

  關鍵詞: 71, a total of

  定位原文:第4段第1句“...obtained three measurements in these particular…”

  解題思路:利用數字71,很快就可以將此題定位。但是要注意在該句中并沒有提到題目中的forelimbs。該詞出現于上一段的最后一句,在此句中則以these particular bones來指代,要多加注意。如果能夠順利突破這個小障礙,很快就能發現正確答案。正確答案為three measurements。

  Question 35:

  答案: (triangular) graph

  關鍵詞: data, a

  定位原文:第4段第2句“They used a kind of triangular graph…”

  解題思路:順著上一題的對應點找下來,可以順利找到a kind of,這個詞組可以等同于題目中的不定冠詞a。因此可以初步判定a kind of后面的triangular graph paper可能就是要填寫的答案。題目要求NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS,而triangular graph paper有三個詞, 只好犧牲最無關緊要的paper。

  Question 36:

  答案: cluster

  關鍵詞: Land tortoises, a dense, points

  定位原文:第4段第3句“All the land tortoise species…”

  解題思路:題目中需要填的詞位于短語a dense of points 中,只要定位到陸龜這個詞,再順著向下讀到a tight cluster of points即可。這個詞組的結構和題目中的詞組一模一樣,只是將dense和tight做了替換。正確答案為cluster。

  Question 37:

  答案: amphibious

  關鍵詞: Sea turtles, living, added to

  定位原文:第4段第4句“There was no overlap, except when they…”

  解題思路: 此題的定位可以根據上一題最后一句話中的sea turtles定位到第四段water turtle后面這句話。從題目可以得知從某種物種搜集的數據被添加到了結果中去。Add一詞是解題的關鍵。讀完這句話,很容易發現被添加的物種是既可以在陸上生活,也可以在水中生存的兩棲物種。

  Question 38:

  答案: half way

  關鍵詞: up the triangle between

  定位原文: 第4段第5句“Sure enough, these amphibious…”

  解題思路: 此題十分簡單,找到兩棲物種之后尋找between,between前面的half way, 就是本題所要的答案。

  Question 39:

  答案: dry-land tortoises

  關鍵詞: P. quenstedti, P. talampayensis, The position of the points, both

  定位原文: 第4段倒數第2句“Both these fossils were dry-land tortoises.”

  解題思路: 用兩個專有名詞可以順利找到第四段結尾處。然后利用題目中的The position of the points鎖定在Their points on the graph are right in the thick of the dry cluster.答案就是之后的那句。正確答案為dry-land tortoises 。

  Question 40:

  答案: D

  關鍵詞: the most significant thing, tortoises

  定位原文:參見解題思路解析

  解題思路: 題目:作者認為關于烏龜最重要的一件事情是:A.它們能夠適應極其干燥的環境。B.它們生命的最初形態是某種原始細菌。C.它們與海龜十分相似。D.它們不止一次從海洋遷徙到陸地。最后一段首句就表明Tortoises therefore represent a remarkable double return, 含義為“因此很明顯,烏龜曾往返于水中和陸地上生存?!边x項A中所說的干燥環境,選項B中所說的原始細菌,以及選項C中提到的海龜,在最后一段中悉數登場,但是沒有一個是題目論述的核心。題目的真正意圖就是想告訴考生烏龜finally retuned yet again to the land as tortoises。故答案應該選D。




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