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劍橋雅思6:Test4閱讀Passage3真題+答案+解析

劍橋雅思6:Test4閱讀Passage3真題+答案+解析

發布時間:2020-11-04 關鍵詞:
摘要: 新航道雅思為各位考生推薦復習材料- 劍橋雅思6:Test4閱讀Passage3真題+答案+解析,希望可以對大家有的幫助。

      新航道雅思為各位考生推薦復習材料- 劍橋雅思6:Test4閱讀Passage3真題+答案+解析,希望可以對大家有的幫助。

  劍橋雅思6Test4閱讀passage3原文+翻譯,相應的解析,

  Persistent bullying is one of the worst experiences a child can face. How can it be prevented?Peter Smith, Professor of Psychology at the University of Sheffield, directed the Sheffield Anti-Bullying Intervention Project, funded by the Department for Education.Here he reports on his findings.

  不斷受到欺凌是孩子所面臨的最糟糕的經歷之一。如何阻止其發生呢?謝菲爾大學心理學家彼得?史密斯在教育部的資助下組織了謝菲爾德反欺凌干預項目。以下是他的一些發現。

  A Bullying can take a variety of forms, from the verbal — being taunted or called hurtful names ?— to the physical — being kicked or shoved — as well as indirect forms, such as being excluded from social groups. A survey I conducted with Irene Whitney found that in British primary schools up to a quarter of pupils reported experience of bullying, which in about one in ten cases was persistent. There was less bullying in secondary schools, with about one in twenty-five suffering persistent bullying, but these cases may be particularly recalcitrant.

  A 欺凌有多種方式:從口頭上的——比如被嘲笑或者被叫很傷人的外號,到身體上的——比如被打、被踢或推搡。此外,還有一些不太直接的欺凌方式,比如被社會團體排斥在外。在我和Irene Whitney開展的一項調查中,我們發現在英國小學中,有四分之一的小學生有過受欺凌的經歷,其中十例中有一例為持續受到欺凌,中學的欺凌現象要好一些,大約二十五例中有一例是持續受到欺凌,但是在這些情況中,受欺凌者可能反抗極其強烈。

  B Bullying is clearly unpleasant, and can make the child experiencing it feel unworthy and depressed. In extreme cases it can even lead to suicide, though this is thankfully rare. Victimised pupils are more likely to experience difficulties with interpersonal relationships as adults, while children who persistently bully are more likely to grow up to be physically violent, and convicted of anti-social offences.

  B 欺凌顯然是很不愉快的,而且會使經歷過的孩子產生自貶和沮喪情緒在一些極端的情況中,欺凌甚至會導致自殺,但是很慶幸的是此類事件比較罕見。受到欺凌的小學生成年后更容易在人際溝通中遭遇困難,而那些經常實施欺凌的孩子長大后更有可能具有身體暴力傾向并且犯下反社會的罪行。

  C Until recently, not much was known about the topic, and little help was available to teachers to deal with bullying. Perhaps as a consequence, schools would often deny the problem. ‘There is no bullying at this school’ has been a common refrain, almost certainly untrue. Fortunately more schools are now saying: ‘There is not much bullying here, but when it occurs we have a clear policy for dealing with it.’

  C 到目前為止,我們對這一問題的了解還遠遠不夠,而且也幾乎沒有給教師提供處理欺凌問題的幫助??赡苡纱水a生的一個現象就是學校經常會否認這一問題?!霸谶@個學校沒有欺凌的現象”已經被重復了無數次。但是絕大多數情況下這都不是事實。慶幸的是現在有越來越多的學校承認:“我們學校欺凌現象并不多,但是當其發生時,我們有很明確的處理方法”。

  D Three factors are involved in this change. First is an awareness of the severity of the problem. Second, a number of resources to help tackle bullying have become available in Britain. For example, the Scottish Council for Research in Education produced a package of materials, Action Against Bullying, circulated to all schools in England and Wales as well as in Scotland in summer 1992, with a second pack, Supporting Schools Against Bullying, produced the following year. In Ireland, Guidelines on Countering Bullying Behaviour in Post-Primary Schools was published in 1993. Third, there is evidence that these materials work, and that schools can achieve something. This comes from carefully conducted ‘before and after’ evaluations of interventions in schools, monitored by a research team. In Norway, after an intervention campaign was introduced nationally, an evaluation of forty-two schools suggested that, over a two-year period, bullying was halved. The Sheffield investigation, which involved sixteen primary schools and seven secondary schools, found that most schools succeeded in reducing bullying.

  D 導致這一變化有三個原因。是對欺凌問題嚴重性的認識;第二,在英國有一些幫助處理欺凌問題的資源。比如,蘇格蘭教育研究局發行了一系列的材料:《反欺凌行動》在1992年夏被提供給英格蘭、威爾士和蘇格蘭地區的所有學校。第二年又發行了《支持學校反對欺凌》。在愛爾蘭地區,《在小學反抗遭遇欺凌行為指南》于1993年發行。第三,有證據表明,這些材料發揮了作用,學校也因此在反欺凌方面取得了一些成績。這一結果來自于一項研究組監控的并認真開展的主題為“之前和之后”的對學校干預的評估。在挪威,經過一次全國范圍的干預運動之后,對42所學校的一項評估顯示,在兩年多的時間內欺凌行為減少了一半。在謝菲爾德大學對16所小學和7所中學的一項調查中發現,大多數學校在減少欺凌行為方面取得了成功。

  E Evidence suggests that a key step is to develop a policy on bullying, saying clearly what is meant by bullying, and giving explicit guidelines on what will be done if it occurs, what records will be kept, who will be informed, what sanctions will be employed. The policy should be developed through consultation, over a period of time — not just imposed from the head teacher’s office! Pupils, parents and staff should feel they have been involved in the policy, which needs to be disseminated and implemented effectively.

  E 證據表明,控制欺凌行為最核心的步驟是制定針對欺凌行為的政策,明確欺凌行為意味著什么,并就其發生時應該采取哪些措施、保存哪些記錄、通知何人、實施何種制裁方式等給出明確的指導。這一政策應該經過一段時間的磋商形成,而不是只在校長辦公室里硬性實施的方案。應該使學生、家長和教職員工都感覺參與到政策的制定當中,而且這一政策需要廣泛的傳播和有效的執行。

  Other actions can be taken to back up the policy. There are ways of dealing with the topic

  through the curriculum, using video, drama and literature. These are useful for raising awareness, and can best be tied in to early phases of development, while the school is starting to discuss the issue of bullying. They are also useful in renewing the policy for new pupils, or revising it in the light of experience. But curriculum work alone may only have short-term effects; it should be an addition to policy work, not a substitute.

  可以采取其他措施來支持這個政策??梢酝ㄟ^使用影像、戲劇和文學等多種方法在課程中處理這一主題。這些方法對人們的意識是很有幫助的,而且將其放在學校討論欺凌行為形成政策的早期階段。此外,這為新入校的小學生更策或根據實際情況進行修訂也很有用。但是僅靠課程只會有短期效果,它應該是對政策的補充,而非替代品。

  There are also ways of working with individual pupils, or in small groups. Assertiveness training for pupils who are liable to be victims is worthwhile, and certain approaches to group bullying such as ‘no blame’, can be useful in changing the behaviour of bullying pupils without confronting them directly, although other sanctions may be needed for those who continue with persistent bullying.

  還有一些方法適合用于單個小學生或小團體。對于那些容易成為被欺凌對象的學生而言,進行自信訓練是很值得做的;在發生群體欺凌行為時,某些特定的方法,比如“不責備”是與實施欺凌行為的學生不直接對抗而改變他們行為的有效方法。然而,對于那些長期持續實施欺凌行為的學生,我們必須對其進行制裁。

  Work in the playground is important, too. One helpful step is to train lunchtime supervisors to distinguish bullying from playful fighting, and help them break up conflicts. Another possibility is to improve the playground environment, so that pupils are less likely to be led into bullying from boredom or frustration.

  在操場上開展工作也是很重要的。一個有效的步驟就是培訓午餐時段督導員以區分嬉戲式爭斗和欺凌行為,并幫助他們中止突。另一個可能的措施就是改善操場環境,從而使學生不太可能因為厭倦或感到挫折而實施欺凌行為。

  F With these developments, schools can expect that at least the most serious kinds of bullying can largely be prevented. The more effort put in and the wider the whole school involvement, the more substantial the results are likely to be. The reduction in bullying — and the consequent improvement in pupil happiness — is surely a worthwhile objective.

  F 隨著環境和方式方法的改進,我們可以預見至少可以程度地防止學校里最嚴重的欺凌行為的發生。我們付出的努力越多,學校參與的力度越大,取得的效果就可能越好。欺凌行為的減少和因此產生的學生幸福感的遞增無疑是一個值得為之努力的目標。

  這個暑期,來新航道雅思封閉班 ,我們給考生的

  簽訂協議,承諾不過重修,只有的雅思培訓學校,才敢做出如此承諾!

  自信,源于上海新航道完善的雅思培訓體系

  13年來,我們專心做好一件事

  那就是如何讓學員順利通過雅思考試

  READING PASSAGE 3

  閱讀第3節

  You should spend aboul 20 minutes on Questions 27- 40, which are based on Reading Passage 3on the following pages.

  你應該花20分鐘在27-40的問題上,這些問題是基于下面幾頁的閱讀通道3。

  Questions 27-30

  問題27-30

  Reading Passage 3 has six sections, A-F.

  閱讀通道3有六個部分,A-F。

  Choose the correct heading for sections A-D from the list of headings below.Write the correct number, i- vii, in boxes 27- -30 on your answer sheet,

  從下面的標題列表中選擇A-D節的正確標題。在答題紙的第27-30欄中填寫正確的編號I-VII,

  List of Headings

  標題清單

  i The role of video violence

  視頻暴力的作用

  ii The failure of government policy

  二、政府政策的失敗

  ii Reasons for the increased rate of bullying

  二.欺凌率增加的原因

  iv Research into how common bullying is in British schoolsv The reaction from schools to enquiries about bullyingvi The effect of bullying on the children involved

  四、英國學校欺凌現象的研究-學校對有關欺負兒童的調查的反應-欺凌對所涉兒童的影響

  vii Developments that have led to a new approach by schools

  七.導致學校采取新辦法的事態發展

  27 Section A

  28 Section B

  29 Section C

  30 Section D

  27段A

  28段B

  29段C

  30段D

  Questions 31-34

  問題31-34

  Choose the correct letter, A, B, Cor D.

  選擇正確的字母,A,B,Cor D。

  Write the correct letter in boxes 31-34 on your answer sheet,

  把正確的信寫在答題紙上的第31-34號框中,

  31 A recent survey found that in British secondary schools

  31最近的一項調查發現,在英國的中學

  A there was more bullying than had previously been the case.

  比以前的欺凌行為。

  B there was less bullying than in primary schools.

  欺凌現象比小學少。

  c ases of persistent bullying were very common,

  持續欺凌的情況很常見,

  D indirect forms of bullying were particularly dificult to deal with.

  間接形式的欺凌尤其難以對付。

  32 Children who are bullied

  名被欺凌的兒童

  A are twice as likely to commit suicide as the average person.

  自殺的可能性是普通人的兩倍。

  B find it more difficult to relate to adults.

  發現和成年人相處比較困難

  C are less likely to be violent in later life.

  在以后的生活中不太可能發生暴力。

  D may have difficulty forming relationships in later life.

  在以后的生活中可能很難形成關系。

  33 The writer thinks that the declaration 'There is no bullying al this school'A

  33.作者認為“這所學校不存在欺凌”這一宣言

  A is no longer true in many schools.

  在學校里都不再是這樣了。

  B was not in fact made by many schools.

  實際上不是由許多學校制造的。

  C reflected the school's lack of concern.

  反映了學校缺乏關注。

  D reflected a lack of knowledge and resources.

  反映出缺乏知識和資源。

  34 What were the findings of research carried out in Norway?

  34在挪威進行的研究結果如何?

  A Bullying declined by S0% after an anti- bullying campaign.

  在一場反欺凌運動之后,欺凌行為下降了0%。

  B Twenty-one schools reduced bullying as a result of an anti-bullying campaign.

  由于反欺凌運動,21所學校減少了欺凌行為。

  C Two years is the optimum length for an anti-bullying campaign.

  兩年是反欺凌運動的期限。

  D Bullying is a less serious problem in Norway than in the UK.

  與英國相比,欺凌在挪威是一個不那么嚴重的問題。

  Questions 35- -39

  問題35-39

  Complete the summary below.

  完成以下摘要。

  Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

  每個答案從短文中選擇不超過兩個單詞。

  Wrie your answers in boxes 35- -39 on your answer sheel.

  你的答案在方框35--39在你的回答上,謝爾。

  What steps should schools take to reduce bullying?

  學校應該采取哪些措施來減少欺凌行為?

  The most important step is for the school authorities to produce a 35

  最重要的一步是學校當局生產35

  which

  哪一個

  makes the school's atitude towards bullying quite clear. It should include detailed

  使學校對欺凌行為的態度變得很清楚。它應該包括詳細的

  ..... as to how the school and its staff will react if bullying occurs.

  ..學校和教職員工在發生欺凌事件時會如何反應。

  In addition, action can be taken through the 37............ This is particularly usefulin the early part of the process, as a way of raising awareness and encouraging discussion.On its own, however, it is insufficient to bring about a permanent solution.

  此外,可通過37.采取行動。這在這一進程的初期特別有用,因為這是認識和鼓勵討論的一種方式,但它本身不足以實現的解決辦法。

  Effective work can also be done with indvidual pupils and small groups. For example, potential 38.......... of bullying can be trained to be more self-.confident. Or again, in dealing with group bullying, a 'no blame' approach, which avoids confronting the offendertoo directly, is often effective.

  也可以對學生和小組進行有效的工作。例如,潛在的.欺凌可以被訓練成更自信?;蛘?,在處理集團欺凌問題時,避免直接面對犯罪分子的“不責備”方法往往是有效的。

  Playground supervision will be more effective if members of staff are trained to recognisethe difference between bullying and mere 39............。

  如果工作人員接受培訓,認識到欺凌和僅僅39歲之間的區別,操場監督就會更有效.

  Question 40

  問題40

  Choose the correct letter, A, B. Cor D.

  選擇正確的字母,A,B.

  Write the correct letter in box 40 on your answer sheel.

  在回答Sheel的方框40中寫出正確的字母。

  Which of the following is the most suitable title for Reading Passage 3?A Bullying: what parents can do

  下面哪個標題最適合閱讀3?欺凌:父母能做什么?

  BBullying: are the media to blame?

  吹牛:媒體應該受到譴責嗎?

  C Bullying; the link with academic failure

  C欺凌;與學業失敗的聯系

  D Bullying: from crisis management to prevention

  D欺凌:從危機管理到預防

 劍橋雅思6:Test4閱讀Passage3真題+答案+解析

 劍橋雅思6:Test4閱讀Passage3真題+答案+解析

 劍橋雅思6:Test4閱讀Passage3真題+答案+解析

 劍橋雅思6:Test4閱讀Passage3真題+答案+解析

 劍橋雅思6:Test4閱讀Passage3真題+答案+解析

 劍橋雅思6:Test4閱讀Passage3真題+答案+解析

 劍橋雅思6:Test4閱讀Passage3真題+答案+解析

 劍橋雅思6:Test4閱讀Passage3真題+答案+解析

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